Health and Fitness

Can Abnormal Sperm Morphology Cause Birth Defects?


Sperm morphology is all about the shape and size of the sperm. There are various reasons why the problem of birthing arises. Sometimes it takes a lot of time to conceive. It gets difficult to understand whether the concern is in me or something else. People then try to reach the doctor and try to find out the concern. And the result sometimes comes out to be due to the structure of the sperm morphology, the whole concern arises of not being able to fertilize a baby in women.

Sperm Morphology

Sperm morphology refers to the shape and size, which has a head size and head DNA content. The head shape part tries to enter a woman’s egg to fertilize it. When a routine semen analysis is done, semen morphology is evaluated. Through this, one can test male fertility. Every male sometimes has abnormally shaped sperm. Some factors affect sperm, i.e, toxic chemicals, infection, genetic traits, temperature, and many more. A normal sperm Morphology lies between 4 and 14 % NF.

There are various types of sperm morphology:

  • Normally shaped spermIt has an oval-shaped head, a midpiece, and an uncoiled single tail which helps the sperm to swim correctly.
  • Macrocephaly sperm – It refers to sperm that has a big head. They are generally genetic and sons receive them from their father.
  • Microcephaly, or small-head sperm – In this, the head of the sperm is smaller than the normal sperm.
  • Pin-head sperm – Sperms whose head is very small like a pin which causes trouble at the time of fertilization. It is much smaller than the normal sperm.
  • Tapered head sperm – Sperms that have a cigar-shaped head which shows that the person is suffering from varicoceles.
  • Thin head sperm – These sperm are the variation of tapered head sperm.
  • Globozoospermia- Sperm cells that have a round head and no acrosome.

Effects of sperm morphology on fertility

Low sperm count is the most common cause of infertility in males but sperm shape also plays a vital role. There is a specific shape of the sperm that penetrates inside a woman’s egg. Abnormally shaped sperm doesn’t affect a baby’s abnormalities. It doesn’t necessarily mean that abnormally shaped sperm are unable to fertilize, it’s just that it takes longer than usual, or a fertility specialist can guide you with that.

Science has now developed so much that various modifications have been brought to the world. Certain medications can help males with abnormal sperm cells to have a baby.

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

These medications help in improving the chances of fertilization in men. At first, the healthy sperm are chosen and then injected into the woman’s egg.

Several other homely ways can be adopted to improve the quality and the health of the sperm. A proper diet and healthy lifestyle can also be adopted such as regular exercise, avoiding using tobacco and other illegal drugs, trying not to take stress, avoiding using tight pants, eating supplements that have antioxidants, and so on. Every good thing takes time to happen and so any changes which are acquired, the visible results will be seen after a few months.


Every person desires to have a baby. This feeling of having a baby is the most beautiful thing. But sometimes there are barriers in the way of good things happening. There are many such reasons which might delay or make you unable to have a child. But as science has developed so much, there are no such worries and if still, you don’t feel good, you must visit a doctor and find ways to overcome the situation of not having a baby. In the end, if a male is not able to produce healthy sperm then they must go for a sperm fertility test.

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